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AINP on Agricultural Ornithology, Anand

Research Recommendation (Approved in Joint AGRESCO)

For Farmers:

  1. An installation of Reflective Ribbons was found effective in scarring depredatory birds in sorghum and pearl-millet. Installation cost was Rs.322/ha and ICBR 1:3.02
  2. For the control of white-grub Holotrichia consanguinea by birds, three ploughing on consecutive days are recommended.
  3. Installation of Reflective Ribbons(800m/ha) at 0.5 m above crop in Kharif groundnut crop during last 40 days of maturation is recommended for for the effective and economical control of Demoiselle Cranes Anthropoides virgo is south Saurashtra region. The farmers can save up to Rs.293/ha by installing the ribbons against manual scaring of birds. Moreover, the ribbons can be used in the next season also.
  4. The Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis is the important avian predator of insect pests and it can be encouraged to breed by providing minimum breeding requirements, i.e. thorny trees (Babul) on outskirts of village or on village pond.
  5. To retain insectivorous birds in the agricultural landscape the farmers of Central Gujarat, North Gujarat, Kachchh and Saurashtra are advised to grow Pilu – Salvadora persica plants in the hedge around their crop field for retaining insectivorous / beneficial birds. The birds retained in the landscape over a longer period consequently help in natural regulation of insect pests of agricultural crop. 
  6. To prevent parakeet damage to the wheat panicles, farmers growing wheat under irrigated condition are advised to tie two Parallel Jute strings vertically, 20 cm apart by fixing it with the help of wooden stakes on the outer edge of the row; the strings are to be fixed just 6 inches away from the panicles.
  7. Gas canon operated as single blast of 100-125 decibels at 60 second interval in continuous mode is effective to repel the birds from the one acre area. For better efficiency, the gas canon should be installed 1 m above the crop height in down wind direction and be kept operated on need based period.
  8. Install barbed wire fence on farm periphery with posting cement poles at 10' (3.05 m) interval and tie 7 parallel rows of barbed wire one above other and 2 rows diagonally crossing each other at centre between two adjoining poles to restrict boar (Sus scrofa) entering into crop field. Tie parallel rows of barbed wires, starting from 6" (15.24 cm) above ground, lower 4 rows 8" (20.32 cm) apart and upper 3 rows 12" (30.48 cm) apart. By replacing lower 3 rows of barbed wire with chain linked net pushing 6" (15.24 cm) inside ground can increase the effectiveness.

   Scientific Information

  1. In middle Gujarat, sixteen bird species  occurring in cabbage crop are all predators of  insect pests, particularly the cabbage aphid Lipaphis erysimi  and hence should be encouraged as biocontrol agents and be included in IPM strategy in cabbage. Important birds are Red-wattled Lapwing (Vanellus indicus), Yellow Wagtail (Motacilla flava), Common Swallow (Hirundo rustica) and Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis).  
  2. In middle Gujarat, twenty one  insectivorous and nine omnivorous bird species  occurring in mustard crop are all predators of  insect pests, particularly the mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi  and hence should be encouraged as biocontrol agents and be included in IPM strategy in mustard crop. Important bird species are Yellow Wagtail (Motacilla flava), Common Swallow (Hirundo rustica), Dusky Crag Martin (Hirundo concolor), Jungle Babbler (Turdoides striatus) and Rosy Starling (Sturnus roseus).
  3. Yield loss due to parakeet depredation recorded was 11.66 per cent in guava orchard of Gujarat. Fruit damage and number of parakeet bird was higher in morning hours than evening hours.
  4. The insectivorous bird community i.e. red vented bulbul in tomato crop found effective in suppression of larval population of tomato fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner). The mean larval population observed in treatment plots was lower, perch plot (6.00 larva/10 plant) and open plot (7.24 larva/10 plant) and resulted in increase the yield. It is recommended to install “T” shaped bird perches to promote birds activity.
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